Category: Uncategorized

whenand how
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In tough economic times, if product companies or independent vendors don’t get time or funds for innovation, who will spend time and energy for that activity? It has been a million dollar question for product firms as product owners often spend their time and energy to think about new version releases, retaining customers, maintain older versions and thinking of staying ahead of the competition. But they tend to forget one important thing – Increased R&D spending is vital to product firms.

There are couple of unanswered questions for CxOs of product firms:

1. What is the appropriate rate of investment in R&D for software development companies in a bear market?
2. As budgets tighten across the software industry and beyond, how can they ensure that the software remains one of the hotbeds of innovation in the global economy?

Independent Software Vendors tend to reduce the cost of software projects and invest that money into software R&D without knowing how Software Development can become “technically” R&D. One thing is pretty clear: R&D budget should be kept separate

R&D = experimenting with ideas/technology with the probability that the ideas may never become a product/ prototype Vs.  Software development = working on a product/service desired by the organization’s end customers i.e a working product/ solution that is giving product firms the bread and butter.

There are two primary models:

  • In the development model, the primary function is to develop new products/ improve existing products
  • In the R&D model, the primary function is to discover and uncover development of valuable new products, processes, and services.

Organizations are so concerned about delays and quality problems in software development projects, both in-house and outsourced, that when they find a reliable, timely, high-quality software R&D arm, they are willing to pay competitive rates. It is important to distinguish between ‘Development’ and ‘R&D.’

Expedux addresses the all-important WHEN AND HOW SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT BECOMES R&D? question with 6 points:

  • R&D is all about developing new solutions for a specific problem domain. The end result is “research toys” or “Product/ idea prototypes/ proof of concepts/ pilot projects. To be a software product, the prototype has to be completely re-implemented and it has to be accessible and loved by the end customer.
  • Software R&D has different motivations and outcomes but it should be driven by a single minded focus – potential for profit/ dollar.
  • All development of new products has to be inducted into R&D. It is important to create a product to
    sell and not just guys sitting around messing about with whatever they feel like.
  • R&D in the technical world = finding ways to do something interesting or important, using known techniques and technology as a starting point.
  • Managing software development is different for various sized companies and R&D takes on different meanings depending on the size of the company, customer base etc. In a small software company, with only a hand full of employees, the line between R&D software and Production software is usually very small. What one day is a software R&D project, may the next day be shipping as production software to customers. As software companies grow and have one or more production software lines, they tend to create greater separation between R&D software projects and Production software products (for obvious reasons). This R&D gap is typically created to create greater diversification in their software products for tomorrow, while allowing the production software development to continue to produce today.
  • It is a wrong perception that R&D is the luckiest team in the planet who get to do anything they want without accountability.

Identifying R&D in software development

Product firms should take R&D seriously if:

  • The solution is unique to a larger set of problems for a particular industry/ domain
  • There is a potential for the prototype to become a cash cow within 2-3 years.

Expedux has gone through this process and we have developed a product for Omnichannel strategies and retail back end operations. Here are our top three tips for improving R&D activity descriptions:

  • Discuss the state of the art and available knowledge, emphasizing how technical knowledge for R&D differs from regular software development.
  • Outline the R&D effort in terms of cost and time to identify existing solutions that may be leveraged or new solutions that can be developed
  • Describe the experiments that can be taken to justify the dollar invested vs solution identified.
Posted on / by root / in Uncategorized

How Online Retailers can leverage the Psychology of e-shopping


Phase 1

Understanding the Psychology of e-shopping
Ecommerce seems to be going only in one direction –upwards. Forrester has predicted it to account for almost one tenth of the total retail sales in US by 2017, which amounts to a whopping $370 billion. This is in effect to the increase in access to shopping via different mobile devices in this digital era. But at the same time, for this year, the shopping cart abandonment rate is predicted to be around 70% which is nothing less than a $3 trillion lost revenue for companies across the globe.So, what is the trick here? Is there a way, technology can help us in taking up this $3 trillion challenge?

The Buying Journey
Let’s look at how a consumer ends up doing an online shopping. Basically we can categorize e-shopping into two types:
• Impulsive buying
• Pre-decided buying

Digital marketing can help retailers in both of these cases using different techniques. Let’s see how
we can do this. Each of the above mentioned categories takes a different path to reach the shopping cart.

Impulsive buying
Many of the times, people actually visits a product page just because they have seen a great offer or have seen a nice piece of content over a social networking site. So, if the retailers can tap into these there channels, there is sure to be an increase in impulsive buyers. It might lead to even more abandonment rate of the shopping cart, but there are ways wherein it could be balanced out. We will discuss about that later.

For now, you can start with:
Churning out great content according to the social channel
Floating out some great looking ads/offers.

Pre-decided buying
These buyers have already a demand and know what they are looking for. The question is – are they looking for your website? If not, are your products showing up in their research? So, you should tap into these areas using two things:

Search Engine Optimization/Marketing – This will make your products visible, while the buyers are doing their basic search.

Website optimization – This will lead to more loyal buyers and increase in the direct traffic.
There are many factors which can influence the buying decision of a consumer. Some times we are not even aware of these. So, if we can grasp the psychology behind these decisions, we would be able to reformulate our strategies in a more consumer-oriented way.

The Buyers’ Behaviour
Let’s look at what the statistics have to show and we can easily make out what a buyer expects during his e-shopping experience. Focusing on these areas will definitely help out the retailers.

90 seconds assessment
On an average, this is the time spent by a buyer to decide, whether to buy or not. It clearly indicates that all the features which can influence the buyer in a positive way should be present in the product page. However, we should avoid information overflow also. May be a nice product image with access to reviews and basic product info is good to start with.

Craving for videos
Research shows that, 50% of customers have more confidence in buying the product if they see it in a video. Nothing fancy is needed here. Even a small 5-10 seconds video will work out, depending on your product.

Building upon reviews
As many as 85% pf the customers read online reviews before making any transaction. This is, needless to say, builds up the trust on the brand. So, get your good reviews out there.

Coupon mania
57% of the customers are believed to have completed the online transaction just because they had some coupon code. Otherwise, these numbers would have been just an addition to your bandoned cart figures.

Trustworthy payment processor
Even when the buyers have decided to do the transaction, they look for a trustworthy logo in the final page. 80% of the buyers said to have felt safer when they saw such a card logo being displayed on the website.

Last moment drop-outs
67.4% of the buyers will drop out at the last moment. That’s a very big no. And huge revenue lost. Research says that it has got to do with these factors –

  • Hidden charges at checkouts
  • Lengthy checkouts
  • Registering before checkouts
  • Uncertainty about delivery terms, shipping cost, return policy, etc.

Gear up your remarketing

Even if a potential buyer has dropped out, the opportunity is not lost yet. Take help of remarketing tools like Google, AdRoll, Facebook, etc. to keep attracting them. Research shows that, they are going to send 55% more the next time they visit your site. Remarketing helps in improving your conversion rates, which is usually just 3%.

Shipping is a big deal
Free shipping has become a ‘critical’ feature in today’s e-commerce. It encourages the buyers to add more products to their cart. More than 66% of them are going to buy even more, if the return shipping is also free.

Influence of Ads
Visual ads may seem tempting, but if you go by the stats, google search results are still the frontrunners. Organic searches are resulting in more than 80% of the sessions. So, it’s advisable to go for search engine marketing and optimization. But, other channels shouldn’t be avoided as 20% of the pie is still a big chunk. And more so, when you would like to start your ‘remarketing’. visual medium. Even though twitter accounts for a very less percentage of the sessions, the average order value coming from them is the highest. So you

Search engine result pages
You might have your google ads up and running, but if your ads are not showing on the first two pages, you are missing the whole point. Data shows that more than half of the consumers never go beyond these two pages (SERPs). So, keep optimizing your ads and keep a look at your ‘ad quality score’ in adwords. As for the organic part, you need to work towards a better landing page experience and use of relevant keywords.

With ecommerce growing up every year, it is up to the creative and effective strategies of retailers, which can help in preventing and responding to the cart abandonments. To summarize all the points, retailers just need to focus on two simple formulae: help to smoothly consummate the purchase and engage enough to imbibe loyal customers. So, are you ready to take up the $3 trillion challenge?

• why-are-shoppers-leaving-my-site/

• andintelligence/consumer-psychology-at-the-checkout/

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Choosing the Right Open Source Programming Language for Your Product


This question has been ranked as number 1 in the “Million Dollar Question” segment (We do not know the sources!)

Which Open Source programming language is better for product development or for legacy technology migration?

“Java is the greatest language ever and powers the Internet” “Ruby on Rails is the fastest way to get to Minimum Viable Product”, “Python is more sophisticated”. As a CxO of a product company/start-up, if you want to know that answer to that, then it lies on 2 important aspects: the Characteristics of the Language and your Local Ecosystem.

Characteristics of Languages


The long commercial life and wide adoption of Java has created a robust ecosystem of documentation, libraries and frameworks many of which are aimed at e-commerce, security, and complex transactional architectures. There are experienced Java developers readily available regionally and globally both as contractors and full-time employees. The open source community embraced Java early on, creating an abundant free marketplace of Java solutions and tools.
On the flip side, concern over licensing rights since the acquisition of Sun by Oracle has cast some doubt for the future of the language and given rise to the phrase “Java is dead, but the JVM lives on”. Java can also be resource-intensive, requiring more memory for example, as compared to other language.


Python is an open source interpretive language that has been embraced by many in the scientific community for its ease of learning and large set of scientific libraries. Django is a Python framework created for online newspaper publishers and powers popular start-ups such as Pinterest and Instagram. Django and Python together are mostly platform independent, although developers must still design programs specifically for independence in order to run on both Windows and Linux platforms.

One caution is that Python is notoriously difficult to scale across multiple centres on a single machine. This is due to the limitations of the Global Interpreter Lock (GIL).


Ruby and particularly the web framework, Ruby on Rails, is also a popular interpreted language for start-ups. Ruby has some comprehensive training available online, both for beginners, with no coding experience, and experts in the field. Ruby has a repository of reusable libraries easily maintained and deployed in the form of RubyGems. Like Python, Ruby is suitable for automation with Puppet, which is an open source configuration management tool written natively in the language. Ruby powers popular web properties, including Airbnb, Github, and Groupon.

One valid concern is that Ruby does not scale up well on the server side for large numbers of requests to the application. Twitter famously made a migration from Ruby to Scala in 2010 in order to handle the back-end requirements of their explosive growth.


One of the early popular languages for Internet applications and websites, PHP has a vast ecosystem of developers, frameworks and libraries. Major companies including the likes of Facebook, WordPress and Magento are part of the PHP alumni. Because of the age of PHP and its long history, the quality of PHP code has a great variance.

PHP doesn’t have rules like compiled languages or strict standards as seen with Python, but rather guidelines available from the developer community. As a result, larger projects can become difficult to maintain, a problem known as “Spaghetti Code.”


The newest entry in this list of programming frameworks is Node.js. Node.js is an event driven language and, having grown from JavaScript, the only one in this list designed from the start to serve web requests by taking advantage of JavaScript on the server side. Programmers will find that their client-side JavaScript skills are portable to server-side development tasks. Leaders such as Yahoo and LinkedIn have implemented portions of their applications on Node.js.

Because Node.js is newer, people with strong skills may be harder to find and more expensive to employ.

Local Ecosystem

Outsourcing is up for grabs but you will definitely want to have a “Leader of the systems” within your local ecosystem. Organizations should properly balance the factors such as finding good teams, time taken in extending efforts to offshore, shorten development cycles and increase the agility. The availability of a skilled workforce will vary by skillset for example, organizations can find many PHP developers and they get very little or no access to Node.js people. Ultimately, your costs for developers will go up if the skills you need are not readily available or are in high demand.

So which technology is the best?

  • Language Characteristics: If you are developing for the cloud, stick with interpretative, dynamic, open source languages for rapid and more cost-effective development. For enterprise applications that have critical security requirements or must integrate with legacy environments, compiled languages may be better.
  • Problem Domain: Take a look at the languages that are being used to solve your business problems and that is supported by the expanse of libraries. Somebody might have already solved 80% of your problem and have a general license available for you to build on.
  • Local Ecosystem: Research your local community to understand if you have a ready supply of skilled workers that can be tapped for affordable talent.


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4 Stages of highly successful Omnichannel Retailing


With the era of smart devices and social media networks, shoppers are demanding a seamless customer experience and defining the retail industry on how it should be now? & how it will be in future. Today’s retail end customers are ahead of retailers in adopting and using mobile technologies. 75% of store shoppers use their mobile devices while shopping in stores*. So retailers are forced to make every effort to merge the digital and physical customer experience across all the available channels such as mobile, web, SMS, call center and social media.

The retail industry itself is transitioning from retail Inventory based selling to customer focused intelligent sales with a more streamlined shopping experience.This has opened the Pandora box for retailers in exploring and investing customer facing channels and realizing return on investments within a shorter time frame. Since multiple channels cannot operate on silos, it brings out a special and effective approach termed as Omnichannel. Omnichannel is a multichannel approach to sales that seeks to provide the customer with a seamless shopping experience whether the customer is shopping online from a desktop or mobile device, by telephone or in a departmental store.

It distinguishes the innovators in retail with ordinary players because omnichannel customer experience is all about true integration between channels on the front and back end of the IT systems. The future of retail belongs to those who invest and implement omnichannel strategies efficiently and effectively. This whitepaper discusses the key aspects of omnichannel retailing and best practices in which it should be prioritized and implemented.


Future of Retail Omni channel Unique customer Engagement

Omnichannel if implemented correct can provide a number of benefits for retailers. 1) Opportunity to deliver enhanced business operating models 2) Increased sales and improved RoI 3) Improved stock management and visibility 4) Seamless and unified customer experience across all channels. Extremely eager to know how omnichannel retailing is evolving with big boys?Whether a retailer is just starting in the phenomenal path of omnichannel retailing or simply looking for ways to re-define the existing strategy, these examples should give you a better idea on how to do it right:


Story 1
Walmart has introduced an omnichannel strategy at Northwest Arkansas: A drivein pickup center for online grocery orders.

The outline is pretty clear and straightforward:
1) Cross channel integration between in-store and online – Re-defining omnichannel strategy
2) Build and optimize the performance of a store network that captures a larger share of spending &satisfying a broader range of shopping occasions for a large part of the population.
3) Adopt the strategy of following the trend towards the “click” enablement but the pickup center and delivery still need to be ruled by “In-store” operations.

Story 2
Crate & Barrely has identified that many shoppers have the habit of moving from web to smartphone to tablet before and after purchases. They have enabled an omnichannel value proposition – when customers are signed in, the C&B app saves their cart choices so they can access their details across multiple devices and browsers. This ensures the continuity during the shopping process.

They provide:
• Seamless experience to shoppers using its wedding and gift registry
• Unified omnichannel workflow for shoppers so that they can create and edit their registry, scan barcodes in the stores to add items, and view purchases made in real time.

Story 3
We can think of omnichannel leaders all the time that include Nordstrom, Wall greens and Cabela’s. But Macy’s has the edge over others and they are part of the elite pack in omnichannel retailing. Here’s why.
My Macy’s: Macy’s localized initiatives achieved strong performance and they target millennial shoppers as part of an “extreme growth” strategy.

Omnichannel fulfillment. This is the unique ability of Macy’s to fulfill online orders both from inventory at warehouses and from stores seamlessly.

Millennial strategy. Before the holiday season Macy’s launched 13 new millennial brands and expanded 11 existing ones. The brands are aimed at two demographics – ages 13 to 22 and 19 to 30 – that are perceived as being “trend focused” and more “target oriented” than other segments.

These examples are detrimental enough to showcase that the omnichannel is here to stay and the future retailing will not be e-commerce or click or mobile. It will simply be Omni-channel Retailing.


Stages of Omnichannel Retailing
The difference between customer experience and engagement defines the stages of omnichannel enablement and retailers should understand the mind share of customers before prioritizing the outreach channels. They always think towards how well they meet their customers’ engagement expectations because customers don’t buy from channels just because they exist. Customers purchase for value and experience thanks to the unrelenting emergence of new technology with the sky high expectations of anytime, anywhere and any device access with the brand.


Phase 1: Click and Mobile Enablement/ Mobile Responsive
Adopting web and mobile strategies are part of the omnichannel enablement. Since smartphone shoppers represent 4 out of 5 smartphone users, it has become imperative for retailers to offere-commerce sites with mobile responsive and mobile apps across all the platforms. In a shorter sense, web and mobile enablement is more than a norm for retailers nowadays.


Phase 2: Streamline omnichannel fulfillment and unique customer experience
Once retailers tick the mandatory boxes of web and mobile, the greater emphasis should be on implementing the right technologies and platforms to sell from all channels and streamline the order fulfillment cycle right from order placement to delivery. Major retailers including Macy’s, Walmart and Target have employed these methods with great success and smaller retailers have to adopt these initiatives with the same mindset and culture.


Phase 3: Omnichannel Analytics
Retailers definitely want to reap the benefits of omnichannel by serving their customers better. But where will they start? How will they do without proper analytics and integrated tools to gauge the customer’s mind share effectively? Analytics is the best of the lot to drive decisions to create a complete, enable a personalized dialogue across all marketing touch-points and measure results in real-time across channels.


Phase 4: Internet of Things & Innovation
“Today “is not just another day for Retailers because if they miss out today, then there won’t be any tomorrow for them. It is just not about consistency and meaningful relationship with the customer but constant innovation that drives the customer relationship management strategies to the next level. Google has kick started the innovation race with in-app and tap-to-pay purchases to cope up with increased penetration of smartphones, advances in technology, and frequent releases in IoT ( Internet of Things) products. Retailers should be ahead in the innovation cycle to provide a streamlined hassle free shopping experience and continuous engagement with the brand.


Every 50 years or so, retailing undergoes this kind of disruption. With the increased shoppers awareness and tech-savvy mindset, retailers go through transformation every year. As the retail space evolves, digital retailing is quickly changed into a new name: omnichannel retailing. The name reflects the fact that retailers will be able to interact with customers through countless channels websites, physical stores, kiosks, direct mail and catalogs, call centers, social media, mobile devices, gaming apps, televisions and more. Unless conventional retailers adopt an entirely new perspective—one that allows them to integrate disparate channels into a seamless and unique omnichannel experience by adopting the 4 stages of omnichannel retailing they are likely to be swept away by the fiercely competitive retail space.


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Top 10 Reasons Open Source Is Good for Product Development


As software products grow larger, identifying the right technology to develop a proper code base is a big challenge for product and platform organizations. New upgrades, version releases and compelling market strategies are greatly dependent on how quickly product organizations can make the desired new products or migrate from legacy technologies or improve the usability and scalability from previous releases. It is common that a B2B software release happens every 6-12 months and a B2C software release occurs every 2-4 months. Product firms are always feeling the heat in providing more digital strategies to customers with less R&D cost.

With many F500 organizations and Government IT systems using open source software as their back
bone for customer connectivity; it’s becoming apparent that price is not the only advantage that the open source community holds. While the discussion on Open source vs. Commercial is always a sweet topic over a cup of coffee, the fact remains that open source software (OSS) holds numerous compelling advantages for businesses apart from software’s low price.

Need examples? Let’s start counting.

1. Security

According to that maxim, “Given enough eyeballs, all bugs are shallow.” What that means is that the more people who can see and test a set of code, the more likely flaws will be caught and fixed quickly. With the community evolving so quickly and rapidly, there are unlimited set of developers and testers who can test products and provide feedbacks to the workflow and algorithm of a particular product.

2. Quality

How does it sound? A software product created by a handful of developers can be validated by thousands of developers & testers. You can call it a “mess” or you can just say “wow” as there are many innovative new features and enhancements to the products from developers all over the world.

In general, open source software gets closest to what users want because those users can have a hand in making it so. It’s not driven by Enterprises rather it is defined by end users. In fact, technical superiority and the code quality are the primary reasons for enterprises to choose open source software.

3. Customizability

Product firms can always take a piece of open source software and tweak it to suit their needs. Since the code is open, it’s simply a matter of modifying it to add the functionality they want.

4. Freedom

When digital savvy product organizations turn to open source software, they free themselves from the vendor lock-in that can affect end users of proprietary packages. Commercial software development platforms dictate their vision, requirements, prices, priorities and timetable, and this limits what can be made with the products they’re getting paid for. With OSS, on the other hand, users are in control to make their own decisions and to do what they want with the software.

5. Flexibility

When your business uses proprietary software, you are on a treadmill that requires you to keep upgrading both software and hardware ad infinitum. Open source software, on the other hand, is typically much less resource-intensive, meaning that you can run it well even on older hardware. It’s up to you–not some vendor–to decide when it’s time to upgrade and what kind of support resources you need to hire.

6. Interoperability

Open source software is much better at adhering to open standards than proprietary software is. If you value inter-operability with other businesses, computers and users, and don’t want to be limited by proprietary data formats, open source software is the way to go.

7. Auditability

With proprietary software, you have nothing but the vendor’s claims telling you that they’re keeping the software secure and adhering to standards, for example. It’s basically a leap of faith. The visibility of the code behind open source software, however, means you can see for yourself, have sense of ownership within you and be confident.

8. Support Options

Open source software is generally free, and so is a world of support through the vibrant communities surrounding each piece of software. The support is exhaustive for the open source community and it has been embraced with excellent documentation, forums, mailing lists, forges, wikis, newsgroups and even live support chat.

For businesses that want extra assurance, there are now paid support options on most open source packages at prices that are still fall far below what most proprietary vendors will charge. Nevertheless, support services have been paramount for commercial software providers since support is where their revenue is focused.

9. Cost

Between the purchase price of the software itself, the exorbitant cost of mandatory virus protection, support charges, ongoing upgrade expenses and the costs associated with being locked in, proprietary software takes more out of your business than you probably even realize. With open source software and tools like PHP, Python, WordPress and JavaScript, You can get better quality at a fraction of the price.

10. Try Before You Buy

If you’re considering using open source software, it will typically cost you nothing to try it out first. This will help you to have a vision towards your product with rapid prototyping, Proof of Concepts and Pilot strategies. You just need to pay for the resources that you are going to work but it is very common even for commercial frameworks like Dotnet and Dynamics. None of this is to say, of course, that your business should necessarily use open source software for everything and contribute to the community better. But with all the many benefits it holds, you’d be remiss not to consider it seriously.

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5 Key IoT trends for Retailers that can create a “wow” factor with their end customers


Last year we saw Omni-channel retailing as the buzzword. Many retailers started trying some of the newer ventures like in-store analytics. This year too, it is anticipated that the stores will keep on finding ways and technologies that’s going to change the face of retail business. Let’s take a look at some of the technologies which are going to make it big.

POS Evolution
Cloud based POS technology has proved that there is no space for that old cash register. Considering the features like looks, functionalities, performance, etc. almost all the retailers have made this switch. A report by Aite Group shows that retailers who delay in upgrading to EMV chips will be exposed to US $ 1.1 billion in counterfeit credit card fraud losses. This need will accelerate the use of chip enabled POS sys tems. Apart from the EMV chip, another thing that is going to play a major role is NFC enablement which helps in mobile payment.

According to a survey by Acquity group, 7 percent of the consumers own a wearable IoT device and another 4 percent own an in-house IoT device. Nearly twothirds of the consumers plan to buy one of these devices in the coming 5 years. There is a shift in consumer perception about connected technology and demonstrates a high rate of adoption to these technologies in the coming years.

This technology is bringing about a paradigm shift brands communicate with their consumers. With the help of the Beacon network, retailer will be ableto know the exact location of the consumer and can send highly contextual meaningful messages to their smartphone. It’s like a digital extension into the physical world. According to a report, interactions with the advertised products increases 19 times due to such hyper local messages using beacon network technology.

Augmented Reality
Augmented reality is going to play a big role in the coming years, both for the retailers and the consumers. More and more buying decisions are going to be influenced by AR. Customers will be able to find out the exact store they are looking for in their mobile app, search the inventory there itself and see if any offers are available. De Beers, like many others, uses an AR tool to let the customers try on jewellery virtually.

3D Printing
3D printing is going to prove its mettle in the coming years. In this era of customization, it will play a crucial role for retailers. Some of them have already started using this technology, like the jewellery store They help customers to get what they are actually in need of and not just pick up whatever is available. This is going to be the next big thing in retail, for sure.

At the end of the day, it’s all about customer experience, whatever new technologies come up. So, whenever you are in a dilemma as to which direction to take your business, always keep that point in mind. Keep making shopping faster, safer and more enjoyable for
your customers.

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5 Effective Strategies to convert your Online Store Visitors to Customers


Bring Them Back!

Let’s accept the fact that most of the consumers don’t buy anything on their first visit. They need a lot of nurturing through different means to attract them back. These different touch points will help them convert from a mere visitor to a customer, but it might take different amount of time depending on your business.

Let’s look at some of the tactics which can help you in converting your visitors into customers.

Follow up Emails
On an average 68% consumers will abandon their carts, which mean a lot of opportunity. Here, you are already sure that the users want those products as they have done a lot of research and added those items in the cart. If you can send a follow up email about their cart within 2-3 hours, it increases the chances of a complete transaction.

Retargeting helps in reinforcing your brand. If properly used, it acts like an alarm, tempting the customer to come back to your site right away. Tools like Google remarketing, AdRoll and Facebook remarketing are being used widely. It’s very easy to setup once your site is getting enough traffic. You can set rules, for your retargeting audience, depending upon which pages they are visiting.

Referral Marketing
Many of the retailers are using this strategy to get their most recent and happy customers talk about their purchase. Review/suggestion by a friend is still one of the crucial factors while making a purchasingdecision. So, it’s quite an important area to harness upon. You can start giving offers like a $25 for referring to 50 friends or a 10% discount if a referral buys from your site, etc.

Signup Popups
Whatever said and done, email marketing still plays a crucial role in getting customers. So, if you can buildyour list through sign-ups, nothing better than that. Many retailers show a pop up at the beginning and ask for a sign up before navigating into the website. It might not work all the time as customers don’t like to provide their details before shopping. But you can ask them to subscribe as an optional measure. You can even give some cashback offers for doing so.

Upselling Products
This works a lot in online retail. For example, if a person a buying a camera and your product page recommends him camera batteries; he will certainly buy those too. So, you can actually come up with some combo packs which will upsell your secondary products easily. Forrester says that, such product recommendations are responsible for an average 10-30% of the revenue. There are many such tactics which you can build upon and start getting more customers and eventually more sales. Pricing still plays the lead role, but you can bank upon other psychological factors which can help in shooting up your sales. End of the day, all customers are human and we need to heed to their psychological needs as well. Watch them closely and you will know what they want from you.

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Pay Per Line of Code – Is it a Holy Grail or New Normal?



The software industry has witnessed many onshore and offshore engagement models but “line of code” (LoC) has been traditionally considered as a “wrong metric”. Expedux believes that there is a need to revisit the perception against this model. By taking a study on 2 situations you will start understanding why.

Project #1: Single Location

Software Development Team – 20 (Excluding managers, analysts, product owners, SCRUM masters, etc.)

Project – E-commerce site with pretty high traffic numbers (over one million page views per day).

Code base size – About 300k lines, of which 200k was PHP, 50k JavaScript and the remainder CSS, XML and HTML5.

Project #2: Extremely Distributed

Software Development Team – 15 developers.

Project – Educational software using PHP and Angular.JS

Code base size: About 30k lines, of which about 90% was PHP and the rest in XML.

Common Factors

  • Code bases hosted on GitHub.
  • Both teams used build automation, continuous integration, pre-flight builds, static analysis and code reviews.
  • There was no garbage and almost no code duplication.

The Money Factor

The first project (the one that was co-located) was paying approximately USD 30,000 annually average per developer, which was about $2500 per month or $15.6 per hour. The second one (the extremely distributed project) was paying $20-30 per hour The first one, in three months, produced 59k new lines and removed 29k in changes in the master branch, which totals 88k lines of code. The project resulted in about 10,000 man hours to produce these lines (20 programmers, three months, 160 working hours per month) — which equates to about $150k. Therefore, the project cost is

$1.7 per line

This also means a programmer was writing approximately 8-10 lines per hour or over a 64-80 lines per day. The statistics shows that the average programmer can write about 10 lines per day. Obviously, it varies based on case to case basis

The second project, in the same three month period, produced 45k new lines and removed 9k, which comes to 54k in all. To complete this work, the total cost was $180K (15 developers, 3 Months, 160 hours per month, avg 25 USD per hour). Thus, the project cost merely

$3.3 per line


Expedux believes that there is a change required in technology decision makers mind in terms of assessing innovative engagement models.  Pay per line of code model is tricky but it can provide load of benefits when organizations have the clear vision in terms of software roadmap and development phases.  Our metric will be anywhere between $0.13 and $4 depends on the complexity of the product and the choice of technology. It’s not about metrics any more rather it is all about bringing innovation flavour with the engagement models